Forensic Chemistry

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting. A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene. Specialists in this field have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography. The range of different methods is important due to the destructive nature of some instruments and the number of possible unknown substances that can be found at a scene. Forensic chemists prefer using nondestructive methods first, to preserve evidence and to determine which destructive methods will produce the best results. Along with other forensic specialists, forensic chemists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses regarding their findings. Forensic chemists follow a set of standards that have been proposed by various agencies and governing bodies, including the Scientific Working Group on the Analysis of Seized Drugs. To ensure the accuracy of what they are reporting, forensic chemists routinely check and verify that their instruments are working correctly and are still able to detect and measure various quantities of different substances.

Nanochemistry

Nanochemistry is the grouping of chemistry and Nanoscience deals with chemical applications of Nanomaterials in the nanotechnology. Nanochemistry involves the education of the synthesis and characterisation of the materials of Nanoscale scope. It is actuality used in chemical, materials and physical, science as well as engineering, biological and medical applications. moderately new division of chemistry afraid with the single properties associated with assemblies of the atoms or molecules of Nanoscale, so the size of nanoparticles lies somewhere between the individual atoms or MoleculesNanochemical methods can be used to create carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene and fullerenes which have gained attention in recent years due to their remarkable mechanical and electrical properties.

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, which include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds with any number of other elements, including hydrogen (most compounds contain at least one carbon–hydrogen bond), nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulphur. This branch of chemistry was originally limited to compounds produced by living organisms but has been broadened to include human-made substances such as plastics. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous and also includes, but is not limited to, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, food, explosives, paints, and cosmetics. Organic compounds are all around us. They are central to the economic growth of the United States in the rubber, plastics, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent, coatings, dyestuff, and agrichemical industries. The very foundations of biochemistry, biotechnology, and medicine are built on organic compounds and their role in life processes. Many modern, high-tech materials are at least partially composed of organic compounds.

Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the study of the synthesis, reactions, structures, and properties of compounds of the elements encompasses the chemistry of the non-organic compounds and overlaps with organic chemistry in the area of organometallic chemistry, in which metals are bonded to carbon-containing ligands and molecules. Inorganic chemistry is fundamental to many practical technologies including catalysis and materials, energy conversion and storage, and electronics. Inorganic compounds are also found in biological systems where they are essential to life processes. The problem arises when inorganic compounds are released to the environment and require cleanup, and this is where conversion of the inorganic chemical can play a major role.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of the substances found in living organisms and the chemical reactions underlying life processes. Considered one of the molecular sciences, biochemistry is a branch of both chemistry and biology; the prefix “bio-” comes from bios, the Greek word for “life.” The main goal of biochemistry is to understand the structure and behaviour of biomolecules. These are the organic (carbon-containing) compounds that make up the various parts of the living cell and carry out the chemical reactions that enable it to grow, maintain and reproduce itself and to use and store energy. Nucleic acids are complex, high-molecular weight biochemical macromolecules composed of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses and are responsible for storing and transferring genetic information. They are used as a guide in making proteins by other components of the cell.

Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry is a stimulating field as it links many scientific disciplines and allows for collaboration with other scientists in researching and developing new drugs. Medicinal chemists apply their chemistry training to the process of synthesizing new pharmaceuticals. They also improve the processes by which existing pharmaceuticals are made. Medicinal chemists are focused on drug discovery and development and are concerned with the isolation of medicinal agents found in plants, as well as the creation of new synthetic drug compounds. Most chemists work with a team of scientists from different disciplines, including biologists, toxicologists, pharmacologists, theoretical chemists, microbiologists, and biopharmacists. Together, this team uses sophisticated analytical techniques to synthesize and test new drug products and to develop the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly means of production.

Geo Chemistry

Geochemistry is the study of the chemistry of natural earth materials and the chemical processes operating within and upon the Earth, both now and in the past. Geochemical analyses are carried out on any natural sample such as air, volcanic gas, water, dust, soil, sediment, rock or biological hard tissues (especially ancient biological tissues) and also on anthropogenic materials such as industrial effluent and sewage sludge. Geochemical analyses therefore involve a wide range of materials and analytes of interest and may be performed for industrial, environmental, or academic reasons. All of the naturally occurring elements in the periodic table are important for one geochemical investigation or another.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a sub discipline including the logical investigation of the structure, properties, and responses of natural mixes and natural materials, i.e., matter in its different structures that contain carbon molecules. It incorporates numerous physical and substance strategy to decide the compound and materials. Investigation of particles incorporates both physical properties and synthetic properties and utilizations comparative strategies, in order to assess substance reactivity. The assortment of mixes examined in natural science incorporate hydrocarbons, just as organizations dependent on carbon. Moreover, natural science includes further organometallics the lanthanides; however particularly change metals (zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium).

Food Chemistry

Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening. An example of enhancing a process would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid; an example of preventing a process would be stopping the browning on the surface of freshly cut apples using lemon juice or other acidulated water.

Agricultural Chemistry

Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation. These studies emphasize the relationships between plants, animals and bacteria and their environment. The science of chemical compositions and changes involved in the production, protection, and use of crops and livestock. As a basic science, it embraces, in addition to test-tube chemistry, all the life processes through which humans obtain food and fiber for themselves and feed for their animals. As an applied science or technology, it is directed toward control of those processes to increase yields, improve quality, and reduce costs. One important branch of it, chemurgy, is concerned chiefly with utilization of agricultural products as chemical raw materials.

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It should not be confused with green chemistry, which seeks to reduce potential pollution at its source. It can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity and biological activity on these. Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to environmental and other areas of science.chemical processes occurring in the environment which are impacted by humankind's activities. These impacts may be felt on a local scale, through the presence of urban cities' air pollutants or toxic substances arising from a chemical waste site, or on a global scale, through depletion of stratospheric ozone or global warming. The focus in our courses and research activities is upon developing a fundamental understanding of the nature of these chemical processes, so that humankind's activities can be accurately evaluated.

Green Chemistry and Renewable Resources

Green Chemistry is rapidly gaining prominence in many countries with the emergence of awards, undergraduate degree programs, and major research funding initiatives, with spectacular achievements in the field on a regular basis. Much of the earlier research focused on the general areas of waste minimisation in chemical synthesis, especially in using alternative reaction media such as ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide, solventless reactions, catalysis, oxidation reactions, alternative energy sources and energy usage, toxicity, and atom efficiency, and other issues associated with minimising waste. Given the increase in greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of petroleum (and other fossil fuels) and the impending limits of this non-renewable resource as evidenced by petrol price increases, there is a need to develop renewable resources such as biomass as the feedstock for the chemical industry and as an energy source. This includes biomass that is traditionally discarded as waste . The advantages of deriving our chemical, and energy needs, from renewable sources including biomass are obvious and crucial to our way of life. The switch to the use of biomass as a feedstock and an energy source is an important global initiative in getting the world onto a sustainable trajectory.

Polymer Chemistry

Polymer chemistry is a study of large, complex molecules (polymers) that are built up from many smaller units. They study how the smaller building blocks (monomers) combine, and create useful materials with specific characteristics by manipulating the molecular structure of the monomers/polymers used, the composition of the monomer/polymer combinations, and applying chemical and processing techniques that can, to a large extent, affect the properties of the final product. Polymer chemists are unique within the chemistry community because their understanding of the relationship between structure and property spans from the molecular scale to the macroscopic scale. natural polymers include the proteins, which are polymers of amino acids, and the nucleic acids, which are polymers of nucleotides-complex molecules composed of nitrogen-containing bases, sugars, and phosphoric acid. The nucleic acids carry genetic information in the cell. Starches, important sources of food energy derived from plants, are natural polymers composed of glucose.

Material Chemistry

Materials chemistry involves the use of chemistry for the design and synthesis of materials with interesting or potentially useful physical characteristics, such as magnetic, optical, structural or catalytic properties. It also involves the characterization, processing and molecular-level understanding of these substances.Functional materials are building blocks of modern society and play a critical role in the evolution of technology. Materials chemistry is unique in providing the intellectual foundation to design, create, and understand new forms of matter, let it be organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials. From nanomaterials and molecular devices to polymers and extended solids, chemistry is creating a world of new materials as catalysts, sensors, molecular transporters, artificial scaffolds, molecular filters, and light-emitting or electron-conducting ensembles, with the potential for broad scientific and societal impact.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. It consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation. Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, often with the same instrument and may use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields. Often the same instrument can separate, identify and quantify an analyte.

Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium. In contrast to chemical physics, is predominantly (but not always) a macroscopic or supra-molecular science, as the majority of the principles on which it was founded relate to the bulk rather than the molecular/atomic structure alone. Macroscopic properties of substances describe how relatively large quantities of the substance behave as a group, e.g. melting points and boiling points, latent heats of fusion and vapourization, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and many other physical properties. Microscopic properties of substances concern details of their physical properties observable only using the magnification provided by microscopes. Microscopic physical properties include, for example, the shapes and structures of crystals, which can have important consequences for the behaviour of large sections of the material of which they are a part.
Eg: as used in bridges, aircraft, and so on.

Theoretical Chemistry

Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.It uses mathematical and physical methods to explain the structures and dynamics of chemical systems and to correlate, understand, and predict their thermodynamic and kinetic properties. In the most general sense, it is explanation of chemical phenomena by methods of theoretical physics. In contrast to theoretical physics, in connection with the high complexity of chemical systems, theoretical chemistry, in addition to approximate mathematical methods, often uses semi-empirical and empirical methods.

Marine Chemistry

The chemical properties of the ocean are important to understand because the marine environment supports the greatest abundance of life on earth. This life is largely made up of the same chemicals that comprise the ocean water and salts. A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms joined to one oxygen atom by weak hydrogen bonds, H2O. The hydrogen atoms are slightly positively charged and the oxygen atom is slightly negatively charged which is what attracts the atoms to each other and forms the weak hydrogen bond. Water is present in the marine environment as a liquid, a solid, and a gas regulated by temperature. Heat causes the water molecules to move. The greater the heat, the faster they move until the movement causes the hydrogen bonds to break converting liquid water to gas. Water turns to vapor at 100° C. Cold slows down the movement of water molecules and their density increases. As water gets colder the hydrogen bonds override the motion of the molecules and water begins to crystallize forming water’s solid state ice. Ice is formed at 0° C. Ice is, however, less dense than liquid water because it expands as it freezes causing the molecules to grow farther apart. The decrease in density causes ice to float.

Petro Chemistry

Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials. These petrochemicals have become an essential part of the chemical industry today. Crude oils are compounds that mainly consist of many different hydrocarbon compounds that vary in appearance and composition. Average crude oil composition is 84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1%-3% sulphur, and less than 1% each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals and salts. Crude oils are distinguished as sweet or sour, depending upon the sulphur content present. Crude oils with a high sulfur content, which may be in the form hydrogen sulphides, are called sour, and those with less sulphur are called sweet.

Natural Product and Biodiversity

Natural products have served as the source and inspiration for a large fraction of the current pharmacopoeia. Although estimates vary depending on the definition of what is considered a natural product-derived drug, it is safe to say that between 25 and 50% of currently marketed drugs owe their origins to natural products. Thus, a review by Newman and Cragg analyzing the sources of new drugs from 1981 – 2006, and using a fairly broad definition of what constitutes a “natural product derived drug”, indicates that almost 50% of new drugs introduced during this period had a natural product origin.  In the case of anticancer and anti-infective agents the proportion is even higher, and one estimate is that almost two-thirds of such agents are derived from natural products. Many of the clinically used drugs derived from natural products originated from microbial species, particularly in the anti-infective area, but plant-derived drugs have also made significant contributions, and it is certain that mankind would be immeasurably the poorer without such natural plant-derived drugs as morphine, vinblastine, vincristine, quinine, artemisinin, etoposide, teniposide, paclitaxel, and the camptothecin derivatives topotecan and irinotecan Marine-based drugs are also making an increasing contribution, with Yondelis an example of a marine-derived anticancer drug.

Pure and Applied Chemistry

Applied chemistry is the application of the principles and theories of chemistry to answer a specific question or solve a real-world problem, as opposed to pure chemistryThe development of science and technology has been giving us a lot of benefits. Chemistry is a field which has greatly contributed to the development. The advanced technology has often required the basic research. Therefore, the Course of Applied Chemistry covers a variety of chemical fields, working on various materials including metal compounds, inorganic and organic compounds, polymers, proteins etc, doing basic researches and their applications.

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research is applied chemistry and chemical engineering with special focus on fundamentals, processes, and products.

Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with chemical production and the manufacture of products through chemical processes. This includes designing equipment, systems and processes for refining raw materials and for mixing, compounding and processing chemicals to make valuable products. Chemical engineers are involved in many aspects of plant design and operation, including safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, modeling, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, nuclear engineering, biological engineering, construction specification, and operating instructions.

Chemistry Education and Research

Chemical education research (CER). CER tends to take the theories and methods developed in pre-college science education research, which generally takes place in Schools of Education, and applies them to understanding comparable problems in post-secondary settings (in addition to pre-college settings). Like science education researchers, CER practitioners tend to study the teaching practices of others as opposed to focusing on their own classroom practices. Chemical education research is typically carried out in situ using human subjects from secondary and post-secondary schools. Chemical education research utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative methods typically involve collecting data that can then be analyzed using various statistical methods. Qualitative methods include interviews, observations, journaling, and other methods common to social science research.

Nanopolymers, Nanotubes and Nanoporous Materials

Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm) or structures having nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material.Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. The size of the pores is generally 100 nanometers or smaller. Most nanoporous materials can be classified as bulk materials or membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a class of nanomaterials that consist of a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms, bent and joined in one direction so as to form a hollow cylinder. Carbon nanotubes are one of the allotropes of carbon, specifically a class of fullerenes, intermediate between the buckyballs (closed shells) and graphene (flat sheets).

Nanomaterials and Bio-Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale. Nanomaterials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, leveraging advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. Materials with structure at the nanoscale often have unique optical, electronic, or mechanical properties. Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology.

Nanocatalysis and Application in Chemical Industry

Nanocatalysis is a rapidly growing field which involves the use of nanomaterials as catalysts for a variety of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis applications. Heterogeneous catalysis represents one of the oldest commercial practices of nanoscience; nanoparticles of metals, semiconductors, oxides, and other compounds have been widely used for important chemical reactions. Although surface science studies have contributed significantly to our fundamental understanding of catalysis, most commercial catalysts, are still produced by "mixing, shaking and baking" mixtures of multi-components; their nanoscale structures are not well controlled and the synthesis-structure-performance relationships are poorly understood. Due to their complex physico-chemical properties at the nanometer scale, even characterization of the various active sites of most commercial catalysts proves to be elusive.

Nanobiotechnology

Nanobiotechnology, Bionanotechnology, and Nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology include: nanodevices (such as biological machines), nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created. However, as with nanotechnology and biotechnology, bionanotechnology does have many potential ethical issues associated with it.

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials.

Nanotoxicology

Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts that affect their toxicity. Of the possible hazards, inhalation exposure appears to present the most concern, with animal studies showing pulmonary effects such as inflammation, fibrosis, and carcinogenicity for some nanomaterials. Skin contact and ingestion exposure are also a concern.

Nano Based Drug and Gene Delivery

Nanoparticle drug delivery systems are engineered technologies that use nanoparticles for the targeted delivery and controlled release of therapeutic agents. The modern form of a drug delivery system should minimize side-effects and reduce both dosage and dosage frequency. Recently, nanoparticles have aroused attention due to their potential application for effective drug delivery. Nanomaterials exhibit different chemical and physical properties or biological effects compared to larger-scale counterparts that can be beneficial for drug delivery systems. Some important advantages of nanoparticles is their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, chemical and geometric tunability, and their ability to interact with biomolecules to facilitate uptake across the cell membrane. The large surface area also has a large affinity for drugs and small molecules, like ligands or antibodies, for targeting and controlled release purposes. Nanoparticles refer to a large family of materials both organic and inorganic. Each material has uniquely tunable properties and thus can be selectively designed for specific applications. Despite the many advantages of nanoparticles, there are also many challenges, including but not exclusive to: nanotoxicity, biodistribution and accumulation, and the clearance of nanoparticles by human body.

Micro/ Nanofabrication, Nanopatterning, Nanolithography and Nanoimprinting

Nanolithography is a growing field of techniques within nanotechnology dealing with the engineering (etching, writing, printing) of nanometer-scale structures. The word nano has evolved to cover the design of structures in the range of 10−9 to 10−6 meters, or structures in the nanometer range. Essentially, field is a derivative of lithography, only covering significantly smaller structures.

Nanostructures, Nanosystems and Devices

Nano and atomic scale theory of the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of ultrasmall structures, such as semiconductor quantum dots and dopants in Si, the operation of devices made from these structures, and the nano-optics of these systems is being developed to exploit these structures in quantum technology, metrology and nanoscale sensing.These stimulations provide benchmarks for precise experimental tests of the atomic-scale sensitivity of nanosystems. The work is providing the foundation needed to engineer, build, and understand quantum devices, detectors, biomarkers and sensors, and metamaterials made from these systems. Nanoscale simulations of optical fields near nanosystems are being carried out. Results are being used to design nanoprobes and nanocavities for use in precision nanooptics metrology, to understand plasmonic nanoparticles, and to model the transport of quantum excitations in plasmonic quantum devices.

Nanometrology

Nanometrology is a subfield of metrology, concerned with the science of measurement at the nanoscale level. Nanometrology has a crucial role in order to produce nanomaterials and devices with a high degree of accuracy and reliability in nanomanufacturing. A challenge in this field is to develop or create new measurement techniques and standards to meet the needs of next-generation advanced manufacturing, which will rely on nanometer scale materials and technologies. The needs for measurement and characterization of new sample structures and characteristics far exceed the capabilities of current measurement science.

Nanoelectronic Devices and Micro/ Nanosystems

Nanoelectronics refers to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. The term covers a diverse set of devices and materials, with the common characteristic that they are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. Some of these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics, one-dimensional nanotubes/nanowires.
                   Eg: Silicon nanowires or Carbon nanotubes.

Nanophysics

Nanophysics of structures and artefacts with dimensions in the nanometre range or of phenomena occurring in nanoseconds. Systems for transforming matter, energy, and information, based on nanometer-scale components with precisely defined molecular features. The term nano-technology has also been used more broadly to refer to techniques that produce or measure features less than 100 nanometers in size; this meaning embraces advanced microfabrication and metrology. Although complex systems with precise molecular features cannot be made with existing techniques, they can be designed and analyzed. Studies of nanotechnology in this sense remain theoretical, but are intended to guide the development of practical technological systems.

Nanoengineering

Nanoengineering is a branch of engineering that deals with all aspects of the design, building, and use of engines, machines, and structures on the nanoscale. At its core, nanoengineering deals with nanomaterials and how they interact to make useful materials, structures, devices and systems. Nanoengineering is not exactly a new science, but, rather, an enabling technology with applications in most industries from electronics, to energy, medicine, and biotechnology.

Nanosensors

Nanosensors are nanoscale devices that measure physical quantities and convert those quantities to signals that can be detected and analyzed. There are several ways being proposed today to make nanosensors; these include top-down lithography, bottom-up assembly, and molecular self-assembly. There are different types of nanosensors in the market and in development for various applications. Though all sensors measure different things, sensors share the same basic workflow: a selective binding of an analyte, signal generation from the interaction of the nanosensor with the bio-element, and processing of the signal into useful metrics.

Nanogenerators and Piezo Electronics

A Nanogenerator is a type of technology that converts mechanical/thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change into electricity. A Nanogenerator has three typical approaches: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric nanogenerators. Both the piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators can convert mechanical energy into electricity. However, pyroelectric nanogenerators can be used to harvest thermal energy from a time-dependent temperature fluctuation.

Spectroscopy and Plasmonic Devices

Plasmonic nanoparticles are particles whose electron density can couple with electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths that are far larger than the particle due to the nature of the dielectric-metal interface between the medium and the particles: unlike in a pure metal where there is a maximum limit on what size wavelength can be effectively coupled based on the material size. These unique properties have made them a focus of research in many applications including solar cells, spectroscopy, signal enhancement for imaging, and cancer treatment. As well owing to their high sensitivity appear to be good candidates for designing mechano-optical instrumentation.

Graphene and Applications

Graphene has many properties. In proportion to its thickness, it is about 100 times stronger than the strongest steel. It conducts heat and electricity very efficiently and is nearly transparent. Graphene also shows a large and nonlinear diamagnetism, even greater than graphite, and can be levitated by Nd-Fe-B magnets. Researchers have identified the bipolar transistor effect, ballistic transport of charges and large quantum oscillations in the material. Scientists have theorized about graphene for decades. It has likely been unknowingly produced in small quantities for centuries, through the use of pencils and other similar applications of graphite. It was originally observed in electron microscopes in 1962, but only studied while supported on metal surfaces. The material was later rediscovered, isolated and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. Research was informed by existing theoretical descriptions of its composition, structure and properties. High-quality graphene proved to be surprisingly easy to isolate, making more research possible.

Quantum Dots and Nanomagnetism

Quantum Dots and Magnetic Nanoparticles have lots of applications in analytical methods. Quantum Dots are semiconductor nanoparticles whose electronic energy levels are considerably controlled by the particle dimensions. This control comes about due to quantum confinement. QDs are useful as an analytical tool due to its unique optical properties. These optical properties consist of narrow emission spectra, broad absorbance spectra, emission wavelength which is adjustable by adjusting the size of the particle, high quantum efficiency and low photobleaching rates. MNPs are made of magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ‐Fe2O3). These materials are typically superparamagnetic in the nanoscale range. The magnetic properties of these nanomaterials allow them to be manipulated by magnetic fields. the relatively low toxicity of iron oxides allow for their use in vivo applications.

Nanoscience and everyday life

Nanotechnology is an inescapable part of modern everyday life, both on holiday and at home. "There are things we've been using for a long time which contain nanosize components, like the lasers in DVD and CD players," says Milo Shaffer, head of the London Centre for Nanotechnology. Yet most of the time it goes unnoticed. "On the whole people aren't very aware of the nanotechnology all around them," Shaffer explains.Although not all nanotech is the result of human activity, evolution has had at least a 3bn-year head-start when it comes to manipulating materials on the smallest scales. "Nature is all about nanoscale structures. It starts with the cell," explains Julian Vincent, a former biologist and now professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Bath. "Biology plays around with the molecular scale all the time".

Internet of Nanothings (IoNT)

The Internet of Nano things is nothing but the interconnection of nano devices with existing networks. Thus, it creates a state of the art revolution in electromagnetic communication areas among nano scale devices. A nano machine is integrated with nano components to perform several tasks. It performs the way we connect devices in case of Internet of Things but the major difference is it can connect the nano components which is not possible with Internet. Though the Internet of Nano things is still in its early stages, soon this concept can be applied the way we are applying the Internet of Things in many application areas.

Green Nanotechnology

Green nanotechnology refers to the use of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental sustainability of processes producing negative externalities. It also refers to the use of the products of nanotechnology to enhance sustainability. It includes making green nano-products and using nano-products in support of sustainability.

Nanotechnology and Molecular Nanotechnology

Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is a technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis. This is distinct from nanoscale materials. Based on Richard Feynman's vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products (including additional nanomachines), this advanced form of nanotechnology (or molecular manufacturing) would make use of positionally-controlled mechanosynthesis guided by molecular machine systems. MNT would involve combining physical principles demonstrated by biophysics, chemistry, other nanotechnologies, and the molecular machinery of life with the systems engineering principles found in modern macroscale factories.

Mathematical Modelling in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

The mathematical analysis of any new field is a compelling goal. We will consider three themes which indicate some of the directions that increasing role might take: in bridging time and length scales, in fast algorithms and in optimization and predictability. Its solutions contain significant technical challenges.In a complementary way, mathematics and simulation would be enormously stimulated by the challenges of nanoscale modelling. While some rapidly developing areas of mathematics such as fast multipole and multigrid algorithms are ready to apply in nanoscale modelling.

Partial differential equation model:
1.Icosahedral. 
2.Gigahertz Nano Oscillator.
3.Acceptance Condition And Suction energy.
4.Double Walled Carbon Nanotube Oscillators.